Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.
Science is defined as the observation, identification, description, experimental investigation, and theoretical explanation of natural phenomena.
Twenty branches of science and their meaning
1. Oceanography: ocean observation and study.
2. Paleontology: the study of the life forms in ancient or geological periods.
3. Botany: plant science.
4. Zoology: the understanding of life and animals.
5. Genetics: heredity studies.
6. Medicine: the study of illness , disease and accident detection, recovery and prevention.
7. Earth science is an all-encompassing term for the Planet Earth based sciences.
8. Mycology, the study of fungi, is a biological branch that concentrates on fungi.
9. Biology is the branch of natural science that studies life and living organisms including their structure , function, development, origin, evolution, distribution and taxonomy.
10. Human biology is an interdisciplinary, human focused scientific area of biology, biological anthropology, nutrition and medicine; it is closely connected to primate biology, and a variety of other disciplines.
11. PHYSICS — The fundamental concepts of energy and matter.
12. CHEMISTRY — Matter of what it is, and how it responds.
13. ASTRONOMY — Universe analysis or totality analysis of matter , energy, space , and time.
14. METEOROLOGY — Atmospheric research that covers anything from the surface of Earth to the end of Earth’s atmosphere.
15. GEOLOGY — Earth research including its history and its composition.
16. PHYSIOLOGY – Study of the mechanical , physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms.
17. RADIOLOGY — A scientific division that deals with the application of radiant energy, including x-rays and radioisotopes.
18. MICROBIOLOGY — Microorganisms research, including viruses, procaryotes, and basic eukaryotes.
19. GENETICS — Gene physics,genetic genetics, and organism variations.
20. ASTROPHYSICS — The science of universe mechanics.
The word Science comes from Latin word “scientia” meaning “knowledge” and in the broadest sense it is any systematic knowledge-base or prescriptive practice capable of resulting in prediction. Science can also be understood as a highly skilled technique or practice.
In more contemporary terms, science is a system of acquiring knowledge based on the scientific process or method in order to organize a body of knowledge gained through research.
Science is a continuing effort to discover and increase knowledge through research. Scientists make observations, record measurable data related to their observations, and analyze the information at hand to construct theoretical explanations of the phenomenon involved.
The methods involved in scientific research include making a hypothesis and conducting experiments to test the hypothesis under controlled conditions. In this process, scientists publish their work so other scientists can repeat the experiment and further strengthen the reliability of results.
Scientific fields are broadly divided into natural sciences (the study of natural phenomena) and social sciences (the study of human behavior and society). However, in both these divisions, knowledge is obtained through observation and must be capable of being tested for its validity by other researchers working under similar conditions.
There are some disciplines like health science and engineering that are grouped into interdisciplinary and applied sciences.
Most scientific investigations use some form of the scientific method. The scientific method tries to explain the events of nature in a reproducible way, eventually allowing researchers to formulate testable predictions.
Scientists make observations of natural phenomenon and then through experimentation they try to simulate natural events under controlled conditions. Based on observations, a scientist may generate a model and then attempt to describe or depict the phenomenon in terms of mathematical or logical representation.
Scientist will then gather the necessary empirical evidence to generate a hypothesis to explain the phenomenon.
This hypothesis is used to form predictions which in turn will be tested by experiment or observations using the scientific method. Statistical analysis is commonly used to interpret results of experiments, and evaluations are made to decide whether a hypothesis should be accepted, rejected, or merely examined again with modifications. This inspires ongoing research and the overall accumulation of knowledge in that particular field of science.